What’s wrong with the grid?

The grid system in spreadsheets is very simple. It’s also very powerful, and it’s powerful because it’s simple. As a user you can immediately start entering data without even thinking about it. And then, in an ad hoc fashion, you can add logic and conditions as you think of them.

Lack of boundaries cause bugs

This fast and loose paradigm is also the downfall of spreadsheets, because the user is encouraged to do a form of programming, without encouraging them to do any kind of discipline. Spreadsheets quickly get out of hand. The boundaries are arbitrary, and usually are only visual, which means it’s very difficult to write good code based on this.

For example, there is the famous case of a large spreadsheet used in an economics paper, called Growth in a time of Debt, and there was a miscalculation because a few rows at the end of a list of items were not taken into account, as, per usual in a spreadsheet, the user specified them in a range. It has been criticised anywhere from a gross oversight to disastrous.

Proper data structures are simpler

However, in normal programming, we don’t have just one data structure. The grid is just one data structure, a matrix of practically infinite width and height. You can access its elements by coordinates. But in programming––normal programming––we have, for example, lists. If a proper list data structure were were used for the list of elements in the above example, there wouldn’t have been this bug, because you don’t have to specify how many elements of a list you want to work on. We just say “apply this function to all elements of the list.”

Data structures like lists and matrices can all be approximated in a spreadsheet by a grid, badly. However, anything more than this becomes awkward very quickly.

For example, a simple record consisting of a name and an age in a spreadsheet must be modelled by using a cell for the label of the name and label of the age, and then the value for each thing. This is a hack, using superficial visual embellishments to reflect what is actually data.

In normal programming languages, this is called a record. There’s no need for any kind of strange and brittle hacking and tricks to make this work as you have to do in a spreadsheet. The basic spreadsheet, as-is, is very accessible to the normal person who just wants to do every day calculations about their business. But the ideas of a record, list, tree or graph are also intuitive for normal people because they actually model the kind of data that their domain is dealing with. Sadly, knowledge workers using spreadsheets are deprived of these tools.

Data modelling is poor

Therefore we find spreadsheets very lacking, in fact, when we try to model even every day pedestrian problems. Consider for example trying to model a family tree, or the hierarchical structure of the US government, or a taxonomy of a species.

Trees are three data structures, perfectly normal, well understood, pliable, things that you can express in a programming language and manipulate using code in a very logical manner. You can count how many items are in the tree, you can restrict the tree to a certain branch, perform a transformation on each node in the tree, or transpose the tree and flip it upside down!

Another example is a graph. For example, the Coronavirus can be modelled by its spread using a graph the graph consists of a set of people in the connections between those people. You can easily write code to count how many connections a given node has to it; that’s a normal graph operation. Or count how many transitive node are connected to it in one direction, in other words; you can measure the influences of one person within a community.

Aside from using code to manipulate said data structures, your user interface should allow you to click a node and edit the text, maybe write some code in there, like any other type of cell.

Both of those things are impossible, practically, to describe, talk about, express, manipulate, or visualise, in a traditional grid-based spreadsheet!

So, we’ve established two things so far. The first is that the grid system lacks boundaries between different data structures, which can lead to bugs. Second is that there are actually very normal, every day, useful data structures which we should, in a reasonable system, be able to express, but which the grid system is unable to express.

Additionally, we have seen that these data structures actually have very well understood and rich and useful operations which work only if you have that kind of data structure.

But a spreadsheet simply has one single data structure: the grid. And, the only elements that you can put in that data structure are numbers, strings and dates. In other words, atomic values. But that’s not real life. There’s no reason that I should not be able to have a list of lists. Or a tree of records. Or a list of records (aka a “table”). I should, hypothetically, be able to arbitrarily nest data structures as it fits my problem.

Correctness checks

Turning to a different topic, when you have different data structures, you can start to add checks that help you avoid making other types of mistakes. If your system knows the shape of data, it can have expectations about how you use it.

You can add a type system to the system. The purpose of a type system is to make sure that you are combining your different operations together in a way that makes sense. Not putting a square peg in around hole. For example, you can calculate the sum of an list, of a graph, of a tree. However, you cannot concatenate a graph to an list. What would that even mean?


In conclusion, we’ve looked at reasons why a traditional spreadsheet grid system is lacking in several key areas of expression, correctness, and even convenience, in a way that is actually important for normal knowledge work and not just for programmers.

If you look through various competitors to the established spreadsheet vendors, you’ll see a lot of “reinvent spreadsheets” language. But it’s always the same thing: we have a grid system with coordinates and an underwhelming untyped expression language. But they added JavaScript or Python to it, or added a “low-code” app generator on top of the spreadsheet, or some special views.

We’re working on a system called Inflex that really does rethink the spreadsheet fundamentally from the ground up. And the first thing to be thrown out is the grid, the coordinate system and replace them with real data structures and a type system.

We keep what’s good about spreadsheets: the reactivity and “edit-in-place” user experience.

In our next post we’ll be discussing the fundamental problems with the expression/formula languages used in spreadsheet software, and how we are fixing it.