The language of spreadsheets is bad

The user interface in a spreadsheet is modal. There are two modes:

You type in some equation, some mathematics, some conditions, and then you hit return, and then you see the results.

Declarative programming is a good fit

The programming language that you write your code in is a declarative programming language. We call programming languages declarative when you say what you want (declarative) more than instructing the computer how to go about achieving it (imperative). When languages are declarative, it gives the system more freedom to make choices about how to go about computing results.

The code in spreadsheets is this kind of language. It has to be. When you change code in one cell, all the other cells are updated. If the language was imperative, that would mean it could change things. That’s bad when cells are re-run all the time during your course of work. It’d be chaos to keep track of what you changed.

That’s why the language must be declarative, to give the system freedom to run formulae whenever it needs to without worrying about side effects. On VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet software from 1979, Ted Nelson said:

“VISICALC represented a new idea of a way to use a computer and a new way of thinking about the world. Where conventional programming was thought of as a sequence of steps, this new thing was no longer sequential in effect: When you made a change in one place, all other things changed instantly and automatically.”

That’s where it ends

However, it’s quite a limited programming language. It was initially designed to handle a small subset of problems that you might encounter in finance. It has been extended with plenty of functions like trigonometric functions and things like that, but without any particular rigour or academic insight or critical eye.

It’s very convenient for simple problems, dealing with simple numbers, text and dates. However, any programmer can tell you immediately that there are limitations to this language. And indeed any Excel or Google Sheets user can tell you that they have hit the limits of this language often.

The solutions aren’t solutions

When you hit the limits of the spreadsheets expression language, there are two approaches:

The first approach is not a solution.

For the second, there are two solid problems with this approach:

You have lost the declarative nature of what makes spreadsheets great. You also have to learn a new language.

If you were a normal spreadsheet user, with a full plate of work, the chances of actually learning Visual Basic or Python on your own time are very slim.

So, probably, you’ll have to ask a “programmer” to solve your problem for you, which is really annoying. A wise person once said: in computing, there is nothing worse than a computer telling you that you cannot express a thought.

Wizard politics

This creates a funny class system of “muggles and wizards”, to borrow a Harry Potter term, wherein the millions of users of spreadsheets are the muggles that make do with rudimentary tools, and the wizards are a privileged class with all the power. Modern offerings like AirTable continue this narrative: in the community forums, I have read this comment by a community leader:

I don’t recommend attempting this using a formula field. Look into a scripting solution—either in the Scripting app, or in a “Run script” action in an automation—where you can tap into the built-in sorting features of the JavaScript language.

It also makes bad sense from a business perspective; I paid for a tool for all my employees, and now my employees are asking for developers to do something that the tool should be able to do already. My employees are wasted even though they are perfectly good at their domain and are willing.

We are also faced with a secondary problem, which is the problem of choice. You have to choose where to put your logic, either in the spreadsheet or in the scripting language. Now you have two problems.

Let’s call a spade a spade

The elephant in the room is simply that the expression language in spreadsheets is insufficient, not up to the task, not up to snuff, including for people who aren’t programmers or engineers. Hybridisation does not work well to paper over this issue either.

This is also omitting other criticisms, like a lack of first-class functions, which would make awkward abominations like VLOOKUP and friends unnecessary.

We also know that this language simply does not scale. People write god-awful messes of IF(IF(..)) expressions that fill a whole screen in one cell. Formulae are duplicated across ranges and then accidentally modified only in some of them. It’s the wild west.

There is already a better language

The good news is that for 35 years there has been in development so-called pure functional programming languages, which are declarative languages which have the power of general purpose languages like Visual Basic, yet retain the declarative purity that we enjoy in spreadsheets.

The most popular incarnation of this is called Haskell. It has a static type system which prevents some issues. It has a well-developed, comprehensive set of functions for expressing common problems like loops, filters, reductions, etc.

Unlike your Visual Basics, your Pythons, your JavaScripts, Haskell knows how to express normal every day programming problems in a functional declarative way, and that is what makes it a perfect candidate replacement language for spreadsheets.

Haskell also has something to say about dealing with time (think: =NOW()), streams (think reading data from external systems), events (think button clicks) and the rest in a pure language. Spreadsheet systems side-step the whole issue (and miss a huge opportunity), opting to simply call these “volatile” cells that may change in a variety of ad hoc cases, but we’ll see more about that in another future article.


In conclusion, there’s no point trying to maintain a hybrid approach of using a very restricted language combined with an imperative language, when you could go straight to the obvious solution and use a real, functional, powerful language from the beginning, which has been tried and tested for 35 years, and is easily up to the task of expressing spreadsheet problems. There is also an optimising compiler that can compile it to machine code to run very quickly.

You can educate people in a tool to do simple arithmetic and filters very easily, I’ve done it. But the key addition is that you can level up in the same language to do more complex things. There’s a progression path.

Our Inflex language is built from the ground up based on Haskell (with lessons from PureScript, Unison and OCaml). It’s designed to be run in a reactive document, to deal with numbers, records, lists, tables, etc. and in the future, streams. At the time of writing, we’re in an invite-only beta, but we’ll be documenting more of that language over time.