Hulk: A Haskell IRC server

By Chris Done

Hulk is an working-and-work-in-progress IRC server. Github repo.

Motivation

Last Wednesday night I whipped up a simple IRC server in Haskell in about four hours. We have been long time sick of the poor quality of the Skype Linux implementation, which was, on the dev team, our main point of communication. We agreed something like IRC would be good, so I thought it would be easy in Haskell to make such a thing, and it was; the next day we were chatting on it!

Good Timing

I noticed that Peteris Krumins made a blog on Thursday about how to write a TCP server in Haskell. I thought, “That’s good timing!” I also use the Network module and Control.Concurrent, and do pretty much everything he is demonstrating in the blog. So it seems like Hulk is a nice “real-world” demonstration of a non-simple TCP server in Haskell.

Requirements

Our requirements for a server are quite narrow:

We also pipe some feeds to it like tickets, Git commits, site issues, etc.

A Brief Overview

General Haskell Projects

In the spirit with which Peteris writes I thought that I might describe the design of the project a little bit.

$ ls
auth  history	  hulk.conf  README    src
dist  hulk.cabal  LICENSE    Setup.hs  txt

It’s good Haskell practice to start any project with cabal init which asks you a series of questions and generates a .cabal file for you. Common practice is to put source in the src dir, and have your Project in a sub-directory matching the project name:

$ ls src
Control  Data  GeneratePass.hs	Hulk  Main.hs

Code that isn’t specific to the particular project but could be used anywhere should go in appropriate modules such as Control.*, Data.*, etc. It occurs commonly that you will need this code in other projects and because the dependency between these modules and your main project’s modules is only in one direction you can simply copy the files over to your new project.

Hulk’s module hierarchy

Control.Monad.IO
Data.String
Hulk
  Hulk.Auth
  Hulk.Client
  Hulk.Config
  Hulk.Event
  Hulk.Options
  Hulk.Providers
  Hulk.Server
  Hulk.Types
Main

The first two just contain utilities that I tend to use often. The Main module is the main entry point, then control goes to Hulk.Server which starts listening on the right port, accepting connections and handling/sending messages to/from clients.

Purity vs Impurity

In order to handle messages and reply to them from clients, the Hulk.Client module is used. The code in Hulk.Client is entirely pure, and it is the bulk of the project. This is an intentional effort. The original program I whipped up used a bunch of MVars and was basically an imperative program, and about as confusing.

Another “good practice” is for Haskell programs to be like a well-oiled super villain base. On the edge is where all the explosions happen, and inside is where the bad guys sit and drink Orzo and control everything.

Impure code is like the wreckless henchmen who always wreck everything, and double-cross you at every opportunity. Pure code is the evil genius who devises the master plan, tells the henchmen what to do, and keeps them in separate living quarters.

It’s also common to put all your types into one module named Types, as you tend to use types from every module and this avoids circular dependency problems in the long run.

Flow of the program

The main entry point to the project is in Main, as it should be:

{-# OPTIONS -Wall #-}
module Main where

import Network
import System.Console.CmdArgs
import System.Posix

import Hulk.Config  (getConfig)
import Hulk.Options (options,optionsConf)
import Hulk.Server  (start)
import Hulk.Types   ()

main :: IO ()
main = withSocketsDo $ do
  _ <- installHandler sigPIPE Ignore Nothing
  cmdArgs options >>= getConfig . optionsConf >>= start

I initialise the sockets subsystem for Windows and then install a handler for SIGPIPE, because that signal is sent in Unix when a program attempts to write to a socket that has been closed. Both Windows and Unix have their novel design choices. Go figure.

I’m using the CmdArgs library, tutorial here by the author, Neil Mitchell, which I am pleased is becoming part of my standard project repertoire.

I define my options merely as a way to specify the configuration file, for now.

{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable, RecordWildCards, ScopedTypeVariables #-}
{-# OPTIONS -Wall -fno-warn-missing-signatures #-}
module Hulk.Options (Options
                    ,options
                    ,optionsConf) where

import System.Console.CmdArgs

data Options = Options
  { conf      :: FilePath
  } deriving (Show,Data,Typeable)

options = Options
  { conf = def &= opt "hulk.conf" &= help "The config file."
  }
  &= summary "Hulk IRC Daemon (C) Chris Done 2011"
  &= help "Runs an IRC server based on the provided configuration file."

And I read the config file with the great ConfigFile library:

{-# OPTIONS -Wall -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-name-shadowing #-}
module Hulk.Config
    (Config(..)
    ,getConfig)
    where

import Data.Word
import Data.ConfigFile

import Hulk.Types

getConfig :: FilePath -> IO Config
getConfig conf = do
  contents <- readFile conf
  let config = do
        c <- readstring emptyCP contents
        hostname <- get c "LISTEN" "hostname"
        listen <- get c "LISTEN" "port"
        motd <- get c "STRINGS" "motd_file"
        preface <- get c "STRINGS" "preface_file"
        passwd <- get c "AUTH" "passwd_file"
        key <- get c "AUTH" "passwd_key"
        return Config { configListen = fromIntegral (listen::Word16)
                      , configMotd = Just motd
                      , configHostname = hostname
                      , configPasswd = passwd
                      , configPasswdKey = key
                      , configPreface = Just preface
                      }
  case config of
    Left cperr -> error $ show cperr
    Right config -> return config

The reading process is merely a simple monad that either returns the Config object or an error. I choose to just throw an error when there’s an issue. I use this library for pretty much every project I use, it really is an essential library.

An alternative way to express the code above is to runReaderT, define a function like get' = ask >>= flip get and then you can express the above with Applicative operators (<$>) and (<*>).

This module will read a file like this:

[LISTEN]
port = 6667
hostname = cn-done

[STRINGS]
motd_file = txt/MOTD
preface_file = txt/PREFACE

[AUTH]
passwd_file = auth/passwd

Server starter

I start the server by using the listenOn function, covered in Peteris’s post, and accept connections, setting the buffering to NoBuffering. This turns out to be rather important; as Peteris mentions, this avoids surprises with buffering, which is something I experienced when testing out LineBuffering in this project. In certain situations unknown to me, access to handles locks up.

-- | Start an IRC server with the given configuration.
start :: Config -> IO ()
start config = withSocketsDo $ do
  hSetBuffering stdout LineBuffering
  listenSock <- listenOn $ PortNumber (configListen config)
  envar <- newMVar Env { envClients = M.empty
                       , envNicks = M.empty
                       , envChannels = M.empty }
  forever $ do
    (handle,host,_port) <- accept listenSock
    hSetBuffering handle NoBuffering
    let conn = Conn { connRef = newRef handle
                    , connHostname = host
                    , connServerName = configHostname config
                    }
    _ <- forkIO $ handleClient config handle envar conn
    return ()

Connection handling

I fork a new thread per handle. No big deal. I have one value, envar, of type MVar Env, which stores the state of the whole server. It can only be accessed by one thread at a time, that’s why I put it on an MVar. The definition of Env is:

data Env = Env {
   envClients :: Map Ref Client
  ,envNicks :: Map Nick Ref
  ,envChannels :: Map ChannelName Channel
}

where

newtype Ref = Ref { unRef :: Handle }
    deriving (Show,Eq)

Ref is merely a wrapper for Handles, to avoid me accidentally using a handle. It is only used as a unique reference to a client.

In the new thread I have a handler which receives newlines from the client:

-- | Handle a client connection.
handleClient :: Config -> Handle -> MVar Env -> Conn -> IO ()
handleClient config handle env conn = do
  let runHandle = runClientHandler config env handle conn
  runHandle $ makeLine CONNECT []
  fix $ \loop -> do
    line <- catch (Right <$> UTF8.hGetLine handle) (return . Left)
    case filter (not.newline) <$> line of
      Right []   -> loop
      Right line -> do runHandle (line++"\r"); loop
      Left _err  -> runHandle $ makeLine DISCONNECT ["Connection lost."]

  where newline c = c=='\n' || c=='\r'

I get a line which is Right, or fail and return what’s Left. The case of getLine failing is when the socket is closed. I ignore messages only containing newline characters, and the middle case is actually getting a valid line which I pass to runHandle that runs the pure client handler, then loops again.

Client handler

To run the client handler, I have the following function:

-- | Handle a received line from the client.
runClientHandler :: Config -> MVar Env -> Handle -> Conn -> String -> IO ()
runClientHandler config env handle conn line = do
  modifyMVar_ env $ \env -> do
    (replies,env) <- runReaderT (runHulkIO $ handleLine env conn line) config
    mapM_ (handleReplies handle) replies
    return env

It passes the program state (env) and the current connection info (conn) to the function handleLine, which is the single export from Hulk.Client, which is a transformer over an arbitrary monad. Technically, in this case I’m running it inside a readerT on IO, so it’s not actually pure. The handleLine action returns a bunch of replies/instructions for the Server module to perform and a new state (env).

When I said that the Hulk.Client module was pure, I meant that it is abstracted over whether it is pure or impure, and therefore can be treated as pure for testing and developing, and when running the server, runs in IO, but only 0.1% of the code uses IO. Also, when I said “arbitrary monad”, I meant any monad implementing the MonadProvider class.

class Monad m => MonadProvider m where
  providePreface   :: m (Maybe String)
  provideMotd      :: m (Maybe String)
  provideKey       :: m String
  providePasswords :: m String

Meaning that these are the only “impure” things I need when running the program. I need to read the preface, motd, key, and password files on demand. In the IO case, I simply read the file. In the pure case, I can stick it in a Reader or Identity monad and the whole computation is thus pure.

What’s the benefit? This means I can run arbitrary parts of the computation trivially, and make pure test suites out of it. QuickCheck my IRCd, anyone? The main benefits are not to have to worry about conflicting simultaneous threads, and being able to run any function from the module with whatever state one desires.

Client replies

The Client module replies with one of the following:

data Reply = MessageReply Ref Message | LogReply String | Close

I find this separation of IO and logic to be useful.

The IRC monad stack

The rest of the project lies in Hulk.Client and is academic/straight-forward. I will explain the IRC monad, though:

newtype IRC m a = IRC {
    runIRC :: ReaderT Conn (WriterT [Reply] (StateT Env m)) a
  }
  deriving (Monad
           ,Functor
           ,MonadWriter [Reply]
           ,MonadState Env
           ,MonadReader Conn)

This is called a monad transformer stack. Haskell Wikibook on transformers

Examples

Example of a MessageReply:

-- | Send a message reply.
reply :: Monad m => Ref -> Message -> IRC m ()
reply ref msg = do
  outgoing $ encode msg
  tell . return $ MessageReply ref msg

Examples of LogReply:

-- | Log an outgoing line.
outgoing :: Monad m => String -> IRC m ()
outgoing = log . ("-> " ++)

-- | Log a line.
log :: Monad m => String -> IRC m ()
log = tell . return . LogReply

Example of the StateT:

-- | Modify the nicks mapping.
modifyNicks :: Monad m => (Map Nick Ref -> Map Nick Ref) -> IRC m ()
modifyNicks f = modify $ \env -> env { envNicks = f (envNicks env) }

Example of using the Conn object from the ReaderT:

-- | Make a new IRC message from the server.
newServerMsg :: Monad m => String -> [String] -> IRC m Message
newServerMsg cmd ps = do
  hostname <- asks connServerName
  return $ Message {
    msg_prefix = Just $ Server hostname
   ,msg_command = cmd
   ,msg_params = ps
  }

Summary

That’s all, folks! I hope this is useful to some people thinking of writing their first Haskell daemon project.

Haskell is the only language I know in which I can write 400~ lines of code without running it and then run it and have it work as expected.