Currying vs partial application

By Chris Done

If you’re looking for an explanation of currying and partial application in JavaScript, I wrote one here.

In lambda calculus (bear with me) all functions take one argument, but you can invent some syntactic sugar to express a conceptual multi-argument function,

foo = λx y z. x * y * z

which can be transformed (curried) to

bar = λx. λy. λz. x * y * z

therefore it can be trivially partially applied (where “→” reads “evaluates to”)

bar 1 2 → λz. 1 * 2 * z

and finally

bar 1 2 3 → 6

the same is true for Haskell and ML. In JavaScript, however, all functions take any number of arguments, so you have syntax to express that already,

var foo = function(x,y,z){ return x * y * z; };

which can be curried (implementing the curry function can be a fun exercise for the reader) like this,

var bar = function(x){ return function(y){ return function(z){ return x * y * z; }; }; };

and therefore can be trivially partially applied

bar(1)(2) → function(z){ return 1 * 2 * z; };

and finally

bar(1)(2)(3) → 6

However, JavaScript functions can be partially applied without currying, too, with a simple implementation like

var partially_apply = function(){
  var self = this;
  var func = arguments[0];
  var original_args =,1);
  return function(){
    return func.apply(self,original_args.concat(;

in other words, take a function and some args to apply partially, and return a function that takes the rest of the arguments, so you can partially apply like,

partially_apply(foo,1,2) → function(){
  return func.apply(self,[1,2].concat(;

or semantically

partially_apply(foo,1,2) → function(z){ return 1 * 2 * z; };

and finally

partially_apply(foo,1,2)(3); → 6

or if partially_apply is renamed to something more pretty, like $,

$(foo,1,2)(3); → 6

This can be very convenient for avoiding explicit anonymous functions, e.g.

var add = function(x,y){ return x + y; }

[1,2,3,4].map($(add,5)); → [6,7,8,9]

Thus we have shown currying is not necessary for partial application with sufficient reflection.